It was 1846 when Franceso Perroni opened an establishment at Vigevano close to Milan for the production of soda water and a un-pasteurised beverage called "birretta" to quench the thirst of a rather staid local market. It was a time of political and social strife in the then Kingdom of Savoy. But it was out of this turmoil that the future united Italy was to grow. In Peroni's view, though, the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 did not bring the desired market expansion and hence growth in demand he had bargained for. It was thus that in 1864 the young Peroni decided to make his fortune in Rome, which was fated to become the capital of the Kingdom and hence to attract growing numbers of visitors and pilgrims, soldiers and bureaucrats, with an increasing overall population. The new establishment was set up in large premises in the vicinity of Porta Pia. Its facilities included technologically advanced equipment for the cold pasteurisation of the beer. The firm continued expanding up to the start of World War II. In 1944 with the arrival of the Allies and supplies of raw materials once more flowing in production got underway again. The boom years between the fifties and sixties contributed to the firms growing success. Its television commercials were to become legendary, and its bill-board and newspaper advertisement campaigns with there captivating model the "bionda Peroni" ("blond Peroni") were to further increase the popularity of its product. With time gadgets such as distinctive beer-glasses and bottles have become part and parcel of the average Italian's everyday life style, and coveted and exchanged by keen collectors. In the firm's letter-headed paper designed in 1901 its first trade-mark, a six-pointed star with a beer-tankard in the middle and the wording "Peroni Roma", appears at the top of the page surrounded by an array of medals and awards. The six-pointed star is an alchemic symbol and it was in fact used to suggest the idea of there being something magical in the making of beer. In 1906 this device was used as a self-standing emblem. Later, a coat-of-arms portraying an eagle was introduced and the whole device was set inside a circle split into a light-blue and a white compartment. In the thirties a thick frame was added with inside the wording "Birra Peroni Roma" and the eagle-adorned shield. Lack of strict graphic design guidelines lead to a number of logotypes-cum-signature on enamelled name plates being created in those years, some of which were also graced by the crown to underscore the fact that in the meantime the firm had been appointed purveyor to the royal household. After the Second World War the famous red cap was to become a symbol of the firm. A logotype in Gothic lettering similar in style to those printed on the labels of German beers was used throughout the fifties Come the sixties it was decided that the trade-mark needed to be renewed. It now essentially comprised a square figure with rounded red and gold borders enclosing a hexagon bearing the wording "Birra Peroni" in upper case Helvetica lettering and adorned with a laurel-leaf crown with the date of establishment. Hexagon lengthening may also be noted in some versions depending on the context. A restyling in 1985 conferred a stylised, elongated "biscuit-like" look to the trade-mark, while block letters were adopted for the wording. It is worth noting that the trade-mark used for the beer-label no longer displays the six-pointed star and that its place has been wholly occupied by the tankard with laurel-leaf crown.