ENEL, the acronym for "Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica", was set up as a state-owned company in 1963 following on the nationalisation of around a thousand private power supply companies. It was hoped in this way to be able to better meet growing domestic demand in a period of rapid industrial and economic growth. The first trade-mark portrayed the acronym in imposing upper case lettering with serifs enclosd by a circle. In the early eighties it was replaced by a trade-mark adorned with a thunderbolt. Like other state-owned enterprises and as a first step towards its subsequent privatisation, in 1991 ENEL was turned into a joint-stock company fully owned by the Italian Treasury. Its name was hence changed to "Enel SpA" and separate firms were set up for collateral activities, the parent company now having the task of overall guidance and co-ordination. The trade-mark featured upper case Futura lettering of great visual impact yet static and impersonal. Full privatisation came in 1997 and it was decided that the trade-mark needed to be changed to underscore the corporations new course and its prospects for future development. A limited call for proposals brought in several entries. The winning entry by Maurizio Minoggio, who had also designed the trade-mark for Unimark, proved a remarkable and effective rendition of a multiplicity of symbolic meanings and rich in evocative content. The complex pictographic device portrays a number of primary and familiar symbols, including the sun, a tree, and a halo and tree with roots. The clever combination of these motifs has made for a highly original trade-mark, with soft and supple lines. Some onlookers even detect a light-bulb in the centre of the tree, an effect caused by an optical illusion. Even its colours, orange and blue, underscore the idea that Enel is a power provider and as such a "life giver". Lettering is in a slightly modified upper case Frutiger style, the effect of which is to enhance overall logotype visibility.