It was 1946 when Pietro Ferrero opened his sweets and chocolates factory at Alba in the Province of Cuneo. Actually, at the time it was little more than a pastry workshop. Its first product was a hazelnut-enriched solid cream called "Giandujot" after the famous Piedmontese comedy-of-art character, Gianduja (see Caffarel). In fact, its trade-mark portrayed a figure of a smiling Gianduja with two children and a calligraphic rendition of the name derived from the typical signature of the Ferrero. The buoyant sketch was an invitation to optimism in a country that had been through the ravages of war and was decidedly on its way to a boom economy. By the fifties, however, the Giandujot hazelnut-paste was no longer Ferrero's front-line product. In 1954 the highly figurative Gianduja label was replaced by a more synthetic and modern-looking trade-mark to distinguish the firm's new products with only the house name. Calligraphic lettering was set under the flurry of the letter "f" and adorned by a stylised crown, a reference to Alba, the so-called city of a hundred towers. Yet a new trade-mark was brought out in 1964 when the house's famous Nutella hazelnut paste was launched. The upper case headline lettering with the name of the city of origin omitted well reflected the economic prosperity of the times. Many mass consumption sweets and chocolates were to become household names under this label.